# Courses - Physics

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## Courses

Physics Course Descriptions |

This course is an introduction to basic electronic test instrumentation and basic passive and active circuit components, with emphasis on extensive, practical hands-on exposure to laboratory hardware and devices. Included are the measurement and signal processing of analog signals and analog sensors/transducers. Operational amplifiers are introduced as building blocks of analog systems. Passive LRC filters and active filters are studied with an emphasis on applications. Some background in laboratory instrumentation and simple DC and AC circuit elements is assumed. Prerequisites: College-level basic physics and mathematics, plus simple electrical circuits (e.g., PH1322) |

An introduction to the role of computation in physics, with emphasis on the programming of current nonlinear physics problems. Assumes no prior programming experience. Includes a tutorial on the C programming language and Matlab, as well as an introduction to numerical integration methods. Computer graphics are used to present the results of physics simulations. Prerequisites: None. |

This course continues with the instrumentation and signal processing topics begun in PC2013. Included are: controllable oscillators and RF modulation/demodulation techniques, basic electrical noise sources, device damage and failure modes, elementary digital logic gates and ICs. Also included are an overview of relevant microcomputer topics, such as digital encoding schemes, analog and digital interfacing, and serial communications and networking. At the discretion of the instructor, hands-on projects incorporating the course material may be assigned. Typical projects are: in-air sonar systems, radio receivers and transmitters, and opto-electronic communications links. Prerequisites: PC2013 and PC2911 or permission of instructor. |

This course provides the basic physical principles applicable to air-borne and water-borne missiles, as well as the fluid dynamics of shocks and explosions. Topics include: Elements of thermodynamics, ideal fluid flow, elementary viscous flows, similitude and scaling laws, laminar and turbulent boundary layers, underwater vehicles, classical airfoil theory, supersonic flow, drag and lift of supersonic airfoils with applications to missiles, fluid dynamics of combustion, underwater explosions. Prerequisites: PH2151 and PH3991. |

An introductory survey of the physics of active and passive electromagnetic detection systems, primarily for Combat Systems students who do not elect to follow the Electromagnetic Sensors specialization track. Basic radiometry. Introduction to radar: ranging, pulse rate and range ambiguity, Doppler measurements, radar equation, target cross-sections, antenna beam patterns and phased arrays. Optoelectronic displays: CRTs, LEDs, LCDs, plasma displays. Introduction to lasers: transitions, population inversion, gain, resonators, longitudinal and transverse resonator modes, Q-switching, mode-locking, laser applications. Photodetection basics: noise and its characterization, photovoltaic, photoconductive and photoemissive detectors, image intensifiers, CCDs, night vision systems. Introduction to optical fibers and their applications. Prerequisites: PH2652, PH3292 and PH3352, or equivalent(s), or by permission of instructor. |

The physics of the generation, propagation, and detection of sound in the ocean. Topics include the acoustic wave equation and its limitations in fluids; plane, cylindrical, and spherical waves; the ray approximation; reflection of planes waves from plane boundaries; radiation of sound from circular piston, continuous line source, and linear array; speed of sound and absorption in the ocean; active and passive sonar equations; transmission-loss and detection-threshold models; normal mode propagation in the ocean; the parabolic equation approximation. Laboratory experiments include surface interference, noise analysis, normal modes, and acoustic waveguides. Prerequisites: PH2151 and PH3991. |

Physics of high velocity impact including the dynamical behavior of ductile and brittle materials and shock waves in solids. Physics of projectile penetration at high velocities. Shaped charges. Nuclear weapons effects including blast and shock thermal radiation, X-rays, neutron flux, electromagnetic pulse, and radioactive fallout. Biological and chemical weapons effects, deployment, detection and countermeasures. Directed energy weapons and effects. Prerequisites: PC3172 and PH2652. |

PC4015 Advanced Applied Physics Laboratory (3-4) Summer/ Winter
Students must integrate the material that they learned in the previous two courses (PC2013 and PC3014, PC3014), along with additional material on embedded microprocessors and controls. A working introduction to control systems theory is provided and incorporated into an autonomous weapon system or "robot." Collaborative and autonomous engagement of the robots will be performed with RF modems and Ethernet communications. The principles of cooperative engagement will be emphasized. For the final exam, teams will compete in 2-on-1 or 2-on-2 engagement contests. These contests will test the students' assimilation of both the formal and the practical aspects of the course material. Prerequisites: PC2911 or other C/C++ programming course, plus PC2013 and PC3014. |

An advanced study of the technical capabilities of current acquisition programs within DoD. The course begins with an overview of the Navy acquisition community and the acquisition process. This is followed by weekly presentations by program managers and their technical experts. Overviews of each program are followed by an in-depth analysis of the critical physics and engineering issues, design trade-offs, risk areas, reliability issues, use of simulation and modeling, testing and evaluation rationale, interoperability concerns, software development issues, interfacing issues, etc. Topics of the course are dictated by the availability of program office personnel. Prerequisites: None. Classification: SECRET. |

This course is a comprehensive overview of the components and underlying technologies of modern missile technologies. The course gives an introduction to missile guidance, missile aerodynamic design considerations, and missile propulsion technologies, followed by an introduction to the physics of modern conventional warhead designs for missile intercept and lethality and survivability considerations. Prerequisites: PC3172 and good comprehension of all aspects of mechanics and electromagnetics. |

## PH Courses PH0810-PH2151 |
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Every student conducting thesis research will enroll in this course. |

The Naval Postgraduate School provides many opportunities for students to participate in campus-wide interdisciplinary projects. These projects encourage students to conceptualize systems which respond to current and future operational requirements. An integral part of the project involves working with other groups to understand and resolve issues involved with system integration. This course is available to students in the Combat Systems Science and Technology Curriculum who are participating in a campus-wide integrated project. Prerequisites: Consent of instructor. |

Discussion of topics of current interest by NPS and outside guest speakers. |

The concepts and laws of physics are explored from the ancient science of Aristotle and Ptolemy through the beginnings of classical physics with Galileo and Newton through the modern quantum and relativity physics of Schrodinger and Einstein to the physics of quarks and neutrino oscillations. Physics concepts are explored and their relevance to every day and military technologies is highlighted. The course is designed for students who will not take a physics based curriculum, but will encounter technologies impacted by physical concepts. The goal in this course is to convey an appreciation for physics as an intellectual endeavor and an understanding of the principles underlying modern technology. Prerequisites: None. |

This course meets for twelve hours per week for the first five and one-half weeks of the quarter. Topics covered are the fundamentals of calculus-based mechanics: Kinematics and dynamics of particles, statics of rigid bodies, work, energy, systems of particles, collisions, rotations of rigid bodies, angular momentum and torque, mechanical properties of solids, elasticity, harmonic motion, sound, fluids. Mathematical methods are reviewed as required. Prerequisites: Calculus with a passing grade. |

This course meets for twelve hours per week for the second five and one-half weeks of the quarter and covers electromagnetism: electric charge, electric and magnetic fields, forces on charges in fields, electric potential, Gauss' law, Ampere's law, Faraday's law, resistance, capacitance, inductance, DC circuits, magnetic properties of matter, transient currents in circuits, complex AC circuits analysis, Maxwell's equations. Mathematical methods are reviewed as required. Prerequisites: PH1001 or equivalent. |

This course covers the fundamentals of calculus-based mechanics: Kinematics and dynamics of particles, statics of rigid bodies, work, energy, systems of particles, collisions, rotations of rigid bodies, angular momentum and torque, mechanical properties of solids, elasticity, harmonic motion, fluids. Prerequisites: A course in calculus or concurrent registration in a calculus course and consent of instructor. |

Basic electromagnetism: electric charge, electric and magnetic fields, forces on charges in fields, electric potential, Gauss's law, Ampere's law, Faraday's law, resistance, capacitance, inductance, DC and AC circuits, magnetic properties of matter, transient currents in circuits, Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic waves. Prerequisites: PH1121 or consent of instructor. |

An introduction to thermodynamics and wave phenomena. The Laws of Thermodynamics, calorimetry, thermal effects, kinetic theory of gases, heat transfer, the Carnot cycle, heat engine and refrigerator efficiency are studied followed by the general properties of wave phenomena, vibrations, acoustics, and geometrical and physical optics. Prerequisites: PH1121, PH1322 or consent of instructor. |

Study in one of the fields of elementary physics selected to meet the needs of students without sufficient undergraduate physics to meet the prerequisites of their curriculum. The course may be conducted either as a lecture course or as supervised reading. Prerequisites: Consent of the Department Chairman. |

This course will present the research expertise of the physics faculty. The course is designed to support Combat Systems Science and Technology students in their second quarter in the selection of their concentration and area for thesis research. The course is given in the Pass/Fail mode. Prerequisites: CSS&T students in their second quarter or consent of the Academic Associate. |

After a review of the fundamental concepts of kinematics and dynamics, this course concentrates on those two areas of dynamics of simple bodies which are most relevant to applications in Combat Systems: vibrations and projectile motion. Topics include: damped and driven oscillations, projectile motion with atmospheric friction, satellite orbits, and rotating coordinate systems. Prerequisites: PH1121 or equivalent; MA2121 or equivalent course in ordinary differential equations (may be taken concurrently). |

## PH Courses PH2203-PH3998 |
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A course to provide the physical background to wave motion and optics for students in the Information Warfare and Electronic Warfare curricula, and to provide applications of analytical techniques to physical problems. Areas covered are harmonic motion— differential equations, complex notation, damped vibration and resonance; wave motion—properties of waves, electromagnetic waves, light waves; geometrical and wave optics. Prerequisites: MA1115, MA1116, MA2121. |

Electrostatic fields in vacuum and dielectrics, electrostatic energy and capacitors. The magnetic field of steady currents, Biot-Savart and Ampere's Laws, vector potential, magnetic properties of matter. Faraday's law. Magnetic energy. Maxwell's Equations. Prerequisites: PH1322, MA1116, MA2121. |

Plasma concepts. Solar structure and magnetic field, particle and electromagnetic emissions from the sun, the geomagnetic field, and the magnetosphere, radiation belts, structure and properties of the earth's upper atmosphere, ionosphere, implications of environmental factors for spacecraft design. Prerequisites: A course in basic electricity and magnetism. |

An introduction to modern physics. Theory of relativity; blackbody radiation; photoelectric effect; matter waves; atomic spectral lines; Bohr model of the atom; uncertainty relations (position-momentum and time-energy); the Schrödinger equation (time dependent and independent); probability interpretation; infinite, finite and parabolic potential wells; tunneling (single and double barriers); electron spin and exclusion principle; the periodic table; molecular energy levels; quantum statistics (Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac). Prerequisites: PH1623. |

Equations of state; the concepts of temperature, heat and work; the first law of thermodynamics; heat engines and refrigerators; entropy and the second law of thermodynamics; thermodynamic potentials; phase equilibrium; kinetic theory; equipartition theorem; transport phenomena. Prerequisites: PH1121, PH1322, MA1116. |

This course covers the physical principles underlying the operation of a number of operational and proposed non-acoustic sensor systems. Geomagnetism, magnetometers and gradiometers, MAD signatures, optical and IR transmission in the atmosphere and in sea water. Image Converter, FLIR and radar systems for USW. Exotic detection schemes. Prerequisites: PH1322. |

The course is designed to support Combat Systems Science and Engineering students in their fourth quarter in the selection of an area for thesis research culminating in the development of their thesis proposal. The course is given in the Pass/Fail mode, evaluated by the submission of an approved thesis proposal by the end of the quarter. Graded on a pass/fail basis only. PREREQUISITE: CSS&T students in their fourth quarter or consent of Academic Associate. |

This interdisciplinary course explores the physical principles underlying the sensor systems needed for satellites and tactical aircraft, as well as limitations imposed by the atmosphere and operating environment on these systems and their communication links. Topics include: satellite orbits, the satellite environment, ionospheric interactions and atmospheric propagation, phased array and pulsed compressed radars, imaging synthetic aperture and inverse synthetic aperture radars, noise resources, thermal radiation, principles of semiconductor devices, optical and infrared imaging detector systems, and their resolution limitations and bandwidth requirements. Prerequisites: Basic physics class. Must be familiar with the concepts of energy and wave motion. |

An introductory course designed to present mechanics to students studying acoustics. Kinematics, dynamics, and work and energy consideration for the free, damped, and driven oscillators. The wave equation for transverse vibration of a string, ideal and realistic boundary conditions, and normal modes. Longitudinal and transverse waves in bars. Transverse waves on rectangular and circular membranes. Vibrations of plates. Laboratory periods include problem sessions and experiments on introduction to experimental techniques and handling of data; the simple harmonic oscillator analog; transverse waves on a string; and transverse, longitudinal, and torsional waves on a bar. Prerequisites: PH3991 or equivalent. |

Dynamics of systems of particles, including rockets. Hamilton's principle, Lagrangian dynamics, and the role of physical symmetry. Velocity-dependent potentials. The inertia tensor and rotational dynamics of rigid bodies. Small-amplitude oscillations of systems of particles, and normal modes. Prerequisites: PH2151. |

The first course of a two-course sequence for the Information Warfare/Electronic Warfare Curricula. This course treats the principles and capabilities of military electro-optic and infrared systems in a Range Equation context. Topics include: target signatures and backgrounds, optical transmitter and receiver characteristics, MTF and OTF, atmospheric propagation and propagation codes, laser radiation and types, fiber optics, detectors, focal plane arrays, D* and NET, principles of imaging, and sensor performance parameters. Laboratory work provides hands-on familiarity with modem infrared devices. Prerequisites: PH1322, MA3139 or equivalent. |

This is a 4.5 credit hour class introducing the students to Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS). Topics include material considerations for MEMS and microfabrication fundamentals. Surface, bulk and non-silicon micromachining. Forces and transduction; forces in micro-nano-domains and actuation techniques. Case studies of MEMS based microsensor, microactuator and microfluidic devices. The laboratory work includes computer aided design (CAD) of MEMS devices and small group design project. Prerequisites: basic understanding of electrical and mechanical structures: EC2200 or MS2201 or PH1322 or consent of instructor. |

An intermediate-level course in optics. Review of basic geometric and physical optics concepts. Laws of reflection and refraction at interfaces. Imaging systems and aberrations. Polarization; Jones matrix methods; electro-optical modulation. Matrix methods for paraxial ray tracing and optical systems analysis. Two-beam and multiple-beam interference; Young's double slit experiment, multiple-slit systems and diffraction gratings; Michelson's interferometer; Fabry-Perot interferometer. Huygens-Fresnel principle; Fraunhofer diffraction; Fresnel diffraction. Prerequisites: PH3352. |

Maxwell's equations, energy density and Poynting vector, boundary conditions. Polarization. Propagation of uniform plane waves in vacuum, dielectrics, conducting media (with emphasis on sea water) and low-density neutral plasmas. Reflection and refraction at plane dielectric and conducting boundaries, at normal and oblique incidence. Rectangular waveguides. Prerequisites: PH2351. |

Introduction to vector fields and the physical basis of Maxwell's equations. Wave propagation in a vacuum, in dielectrics and conductors, and in the ionosphere. Reflection and refraction at the interface between media. Guided waves. Radiation from a dipole. Prerequisites: MA2121 and a course in basic electricity and magnetism. |

A discussion of the fundamental principles behind each term of the sonar equations. Starting with the acoustic wave equation and the basic properties of sound waves, topics include ray acoustics, normal mode theory, simple transmission loss models, coherent and incoherent sound, directivity, beamforming, scattering, noise sources and properties, and the detection threshold. This course can be taken online as part of the ASW Certificate program. Prerequisites: Single-variable calculus. |

Development of, and solutions to, the acoustic wave equation in fluids; propagation of plane, spherical and cylindrical waves in fluids; sound pressure level, intensity, and specific acoustic impedance; normal and oblique incidence reflection and transmission from plane boundaries; transmission through a layer; image theory and surface interference; sound absorption and dispersion for classical and relaxing fluids; acoustic behavior of sources and arrays, acoustical reciprocity, continuous line source, plane circular piston, radiation impedance, and the steered line array; transducer properties, sensitivities, and calibration. Laboratory experiments include longitudinal waves in an air-filled tube, surface interference, properties of underwater transducers, three-element array, speed of sound in water, and absorption in gases. Prerequisites: PH3119 and PH3991 or equivalent. |

This course is a continuation of PH3451. Lumped acoustic elements and the resonant bubble; introduction to simple transducers; normal modes in rectangular and cylindrical enclosures; steady-state response of acoustic waveguides of constant cross section, propagating evanescent modes, and group and phase speeds; transmission of sound in the ocean, the Eikonal Equation and necessary space conditions for ray theory, and refraction and ray diagrams; sound propagation in the mixed layer, the convergence zone, and the deep sound channel; passive sonar equation, ambient noise and doppler effect and bandwidth considerations; active sonar equations, target strength and reverberation. Laboratory experiments include Helmholtz resonators, normal modes in rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical enclosures, water-filled waveguide, noise analysis, impedance of a loudspeaker. Prerequisites: PH3451. |

The application of the principles of acoustics and mechanics to the problems of controlling noise, vibration and mechanical shock. Topics include linear mechanical vibrations; introduction to vibrations of nonlinear systems; damping mechanisms; vibration and shock isolation; noise generation and control; effects of noise on man; application to problems of naval interest, such as ship quieting and industrial noise control. Prerequisites: A course in acoustics. |

Navier-Stokes Equations and their exact solutions; Reynolds and other numbers and dynamic similarity. Incompressible inviscid hydrodynamics including flow about a circular cylinder and airfoil theory. Prandtl's boundary layer theory: the laminar boundary layer on a flat plate; effects of pressure gradients; separation of a laminar boundary; streamline bodies. Hydrodynamics stability and transition to a turbulent boundary layer; velocity profile in the turbulent boundary layer; drag on a flat plate. Blunt bodies. Drag reduction. Supercavitation. Torpedoes: drag and lift; dynamics of a straight-running torpedo; power plants; propulsors. Review of thermodynamics. Subsonic and supersonic flows. The converging-diverging nozzle. Shock waves: Rankine-Hugoniot equations; stationary normal shocks in air and water. Underwater explosions: detonation; scaling laws for the shock wave; the bubble and it interaction with surfaces. Shaped charges. Prerequisite: MA3139 or equivalent. |

Formation of solids, crystal structure of semiconductors, X-ray diffraction, lattice vibrations, defects, electrical and thermal properties, free electron model, Seebeck effect, thermionic emission, photoemission, effects of periodic potential, formation of energy bands, E-k relation, band structure of Si and GaAs, electrons and holes, doping and impurity levels, mobility, diffusion, continuity equation, Schottky and ohmic contacts, optical properties, Formation of p-n junction, I-V characteristics, bipolar and field effect transistors, fabrication technology, semiconductor alloys, quantum effect devices, fundamental limits to semiconductor device technology. Prerequisites: PH2652. |

This course provides a study of the underlying science of all aspects of energy, including energy availability, production, conversion, storage, and delivery. Topics covered will emphasize basic physics and chemistry of: work, power, units and unit conversion; fossil fuels, heat engines and power plants; solar thermal and solar voltaic sources; wind, hydro, and tidal power; geothermal and biomass energy; transportation, including electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries and fuel cells; nuclear energy; and energy conservation. Quantitative problem solving will be emphasized, including development of tools for energy systems analysis. Student will present briefs addressing energy topics with DoD/Don relevance at the end of the course. Prerequisite: Introductory physics at the algebra/trigonometry level. |

Entropy, temperature, Boltzmann factor and Gibbs factor are developed from a quantum point of view. Blackbody radiation, chemical potential, partition function, Gibbs sum and applications to an ideal gas are covered. Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics and applications to degenerate systems; Gibbs free energy, Helmholtz free energy, enthalpy, kinetic theory, phase transformations, chemical reactions. Prerequisites: PH2724 and PH2652. |

This is the first in a sequence of graduate specialization courses on nuclear weapons and their effects. This course deals with the underlying principles of nuclear physics, including nuclear forces, models, stability, reactions and decay processes, and interaction of high energy particles with matter. Prerequisites: PH3152, PH3360, and PH2652 or equivalents. |

This course provides a basic introduction to the fundamentals of railgun theory, design, and practice. Requirements for both the Army and Navy applications are discussed. Acceleration of projectiles, pulsed power sources for the railgun, barrel life, mechanical stress, projectile design, and thermal considerations will be discussed |

Discussion of heat flow, electromagnetic waves, elastic waves, and quantum-mechanical waves; applications of orthogonal functions to electromagnetic multipoles, angular momentum in quantum mechanics, and to normal modes on acoustic and electromagnetic systems. Applications of complex analysis to Green Function in quantum mechanics and electromagnetism. Application of Fourier series and transforms to resonant systems. Applications of partial differential equation techniques to equation of physics. Prerequisites: Basic physics, multivariable calculus, vector analysis, Fourier series, complex numbers, and ordinary differential equations. |

Study in one of the fields of intermediate physics and related applied areas selected to meet special needs or interests of students. The course may be conducted as a seminar or supervised reading in different topics. Prerequisites: A 2000 level course appropriate to the subject to be studied, and consent of the Department Chairman. The course may also be taken on a Pass/Fail basis, provided the student has requested so at the time of enrollment. |

## PH Courses PH4001-PH4371 |
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This course provides students with the opportunity to develop the ability to deliver a briefing on a technical subject by presenting their thesis to other students and faculty. This course is required of all students working for a degree from the Physics Department and of all Combat Systems students not presenting their thesis in some other department. Prerequisites: At least two quarters of thesis research. |

The physical principles describing free electron lasers are explained with applications to ship defense from sea-skimming missiles, and to new radiation sources for scientific research. Theory is applied to experimental facilities around the world. Topics include optical resonator design, general laser concepts, laser beam propagation, relativistic electron dynamics, phase-space analysis, and numerical simulation. Prerequisites: PH4353, E&M. |

This course outlines High-Power Microwave (HPM) and radiofrequency (RF) weapons technology, design, and progress including sources, systems integration, and effects of these emerging capabilities at the SECRET/U.S. ONLY level. Definitions and terminology, and calculations concerning the effects upon electronics, such as burnout and upset; narrowband and wideband modulation; and RF radiation, propagation, and coupling will be presented. The generation of high-power electromagnetic fields in compact sources, testing, EMI/EMC fratricide/suicide issues, and transition to employment as operational systems in a variety of applications will be described. Intelligence concerning the growing RF weapons threat is analyzed with particular attention paid to IW, terrorism, and asymmetrical threat aspects of these developments. Prerequisites: PH3352, EC3600, or EO3602. Classification: SECRET/U.S. only. |

The first course in a two-course sequence covering classical mechanics at the advanced graduate level. Newtonian mechanics of single-particle and two-body central force systems, including orbital motion and scattering. Constraints, Lagrangian dynamics and generalized coordinates. Euler's formulation of rigid body mechanics. Small oscillations and systems of coupled oscillators. Prerequisites: PH3152 and PH3991 or equivalents. |

The second course in a two-course sequence covering classical mechanics at the advanced graduate level. Kinematics and dynamics of relativistic systems from the Lagrangian perspective. Hamilton's equations of motion and conservation laws. Poison brackets and commutation. Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of mechanics and action-angle variables. Introduction to nonlinear dynamics and chaotic systems. Introduction to classical perturbation theory. Prerequisites: PH4153 or equivalent. |

The foundations of fluid mechanics presented in the tensor formulation. Scalars, vectors, and tensors; tensor differential and integral calculus; the stress tensor and rate of deformation tensor; principal values, deviators, and other invariants; fundamental laws: conservation of mass, linear momentum, angular momentum, and energy; constitutive equations; non-Newtonian fluids; Visco-Plastic materials. Prerequisites: PC3172 or equivalent. |

The goals of the course are to provide in-depth and advanced understanding of explosives from theoretical and practical standpoints, to formulate the bases for evaluating competitive and alternative explosive systems, and to provide criteria for crisis management. This course covers advanced topics in explosive physics and chemistry: Molecular energetics of the explosive molecule including molecular orbital and valence bonding and resonance stabilization concepts and practical implications of sensitivity and energy potential, oxygen balance and thermodynamic, reaction rate theory, hot-spot theory, shock physics and detonation theory. Special topics in explosive technology and application as applied to metal driving, mine detection and neutralization, chemical and biological dissemination, and computational modeling are offered per student's interests. Prerequisites: PC3172 and PH2652. |

This unclassified course for students in interdisciplinary curricula treats the military applications of countermeasures to electro-optic systems, including IR and EO seekers and trackers, surveillance and missile and laser warning systems, and laser rangers and designators. Scanning FLIR and IRST systems and array applications will be included. Signature suppression and generic active and passive countermeasure approached will be discussed including decoys and active IRCM. Laboratory work will deal with EO/IR devices and possible countermeasure techniques. Prerequisites: PH3204, MA3139, or equivalent. |

This course treats the physical phenomena and practical problems involved in sensor systems for electromagnetic signals in the EO/IR range. Topics included are: optical modulation, nonlinear optics, acousto-optics; atmospheric molecular absorption characteristics and mechanisms of detectors for optical and infrared radiation, noise in detectors, cooling systems; image intensifiers, television and FLIR systems; detecting, tracking and homing systems; signal sources, target signatures and backgrounds; laser target designators, laser radars, the range equation. The laboratory will include experiments related to this material as well as to that of the preceding course, PH3252. Prerequisites: PH2652, PH3292, and PH3352 or equivalent. |

This course is intended as a capstone course on EO/IR systems for the Combat Systems Science and Technology Curriculum, or the Electronic Warfare Systems Technology curriculum. It addresses the system analysis and technology of infrared imaging (FLIR) and search/track systems (IRST), including the derivation of system performance measures such as Minimum Detectable Temperature Difference (MDT), and Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference (MRTD) in terms of the optics, scanner, detectors, display, and human operator characteristics. Operational Performance Prediction codes and Tactical Decision Aids (TDAs) will be analyzed for current and developmental Forward Looking InfraRed (FLIR) Systems, and comparable codes for IRSTs discussed. Criteria for target detection and transference of contrast will be compared. Integrated Focal Plane Array Technology will be explored for application to second/third generation FLIR and Staring Imager development. Prerequisites: PH4253 or PH4209 or consent of instructor. |

The first course in a comprehensive two-course sequence covering the physics of lasers, optoelectronic and electro-optical devices. Review of Atomic and molecular energy levels, time-dependent perturbation theory, radiative transitions, transition rates. Einstein A and B coefficients for spontaneous and stimulated radiative transitions, blackbody radiation. Optical attenuation and amplification, rate equations. Basic laser theory, gain saturation, homogeneous and inhomogeneous effects. Optical resonators, laser modes, coherence. Q-switching, mode locking, pulse compression, laser pumping and tuning mechanisms. Gaussian beams. Introduction to multiple-mode and single mode optical fibers. Prerequisites: PH3292, PH3352, PH2652, or equivalent(s). |

The second course in a two-course sequence covering the physics of lasers, optoelectronic and electro-optical devices. Physics of optoelectronic detection, noise, detector figures-of-merit. Photovoltaic, photoconductive, bolometric and charge-coupled (CCD) detector families. 1-D and 2-D (focal-pave array) detectors. Image intensifiers and night vision systems. Gaussian beams. Physics of optical fibers and their practical applications. Optical properties of anisotropic media and their applications, electro-optical effects and modulators. Introduction to nonlinear optics, optical harmonic generation, parametric amplification and optical heterodyning. Prerequisites: PH3292, PH3352 and PH2652, or equivalent(s). |

A course in the physical optics of advanced imaging techniques, Introduction to Fourier optics, spatial frequency, sampling, and transfer function concepts, Beam diffraction from the linear systems/Fourier transform perspective, Wavefront coherence and its characterization, Optical transfer functions, modulation transfer functions and diffraction limited resolution of optical and RF systems, Performance characterization of imaging systems, Correlation-based reception in active systems, Computerized tomography and other projection-based imaging methods (including SAR and ISAR). Prerequisites: PH3292 or equivalent; PH4272 is recommended as a concurrent course. |

A course in the physics of radar and high-power RF/microwave systems. Radiometry and the propagation of electromagnetic energy. Radar equation and its relationship to radiometry. Noise and minimum detection threshold criteria. Range gating, scanning and range ambiguity. Target cross-section and polarization effects. Doppler techniques. Correlation analysis of signals and signal coherence. Synthetic aperture methods. Absorption and scattering of RF/microwave beams by the atmosphere. Modulation and demodulation techniques, pulse compression, chirping and signal recovery. Ultra-wideband and monopulse radars. Tracking and jamming. Propagation of high-power beams and thermal blooming/defocusing in the atmosphere. Introduction to RF/microwave weapons and their effects. Prerequisites: PH2351 and PH3292. |

Same as ME4780 and EC4280. This is the second course in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Design. This course will expose students to advanced topics on material considerations for MEMS, microfabrication techniques, forces in the micro- and nano-domains, and circuits and systems issues. Case studies of MEMS-based microsensors, microactuators, and microfluidic devices will be discussed. The laboratory work includes computer aided design (CAD) and characterization of existing MEMS devices. The grades will be based on exams, lab projects, and a group design project. Prerequisites: ME/EC/PH3280 or ME3780 or consent of instructor. |

Topics selected from: Electromagnetic radiation, including radiation from antennas and accelerating particles, and radiation scattering from charged particles. Additional topics may include Cerenkov radiation, free electron lasers, and the relativistic formulation of electrodynamics. Prerequisites: PH3152, PH3352 and PH3991. |

This course gives an in-depth coverage of scattering of electromagnetic radiation in the microwave to optical region, from randomly distributed scatterers in the atmosphere and the propagation of optical radiation in turbulent randomly fluctuating atmosphere, which has a most significant application in the high energy laser weapon program. Prerequisites: PH3352, PH3991. |

Tensors in special relativity. Classical relativistic electromagnetic field theory. Lorentz electron theory. Prerequisites: PH4353 and familiarity with the special theory of relativity and Lagrangian mechanics. |

## PH Courses PH4771-PH5810 |
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Review of thermodynamics. Phase transitions and critical exponents. Ginzburg-Landau theory. Stochastic dynamics and Brownian motion: master equation, Langevin equation, and Fokker-Planck equation. Phase space motion, Liouville theorem. BBGKY hierarchy. Boltzmann equation, H theorem, and entropy. Kinetic theory. Review of equilibrium statistical mechanics and ensemble theory. Information theory. Bose-Einstein condensation, photon gas. Degenerate Fermions: heavily doped semiconductors, degeneracy pressure. Paramagnetism, Curie theory. Ising model of magnetism. Glauber model of time-dependent Ising spins. Widom, Kadanoff scaling theories. Renormalization theory. Onsager relations, linear response theory, fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Prerequisites: PH3782. |

This course explores the key physics underlying the lethality of conventional weapons. Particular focus is given to two broad areas: armor penetration and damage from shock and blast waves. Detailed topics covered in the course include: an overview of modern warheads; basic mechanics of materials; high strain-rate deformation of materials under intense loading; terminal ballistics of projectiles, ranging from small-caliber rounds up to shaped charge jets; shock waves in solids and spall phenomena; blast waves from explosive charges and nuclear weapons; and underwater weapons effects. Prerequisites: PC3172, PH3352, PH2151. |

This course teaches the physics and engineering concepts underlying two specific weapon systems currently in development for future US Navy electric ships: directed energy free electron/solid state lasers and the electromagnetic railgun. The directed energy topics include current program reviews, laser target damage, laser beam propagation through the atmosphere, thermal blooming, and the physics of free electron and solid state lasers. For the railgun, topics include electromagnetic gun theory and critical design issues including power conditioning, barrel design, barrel life, projectile design, and system cooling. Prerequisites: PH3352. |

This course address technical issues of detection of nuclear weapon materials, covert explosions, disposition of weapon grade material and nuclear reactor fuel, control and disposition of chemical and biological weapons, policy issues of arms proliferation and arms control. Prerequisites: Consent of instructor. |

This final course in the nuclear weapons effects graduate specialization sequence deals with technical aspects of strategic and tactical nuclear war. Effects which nuclear weapons explosion environments have on various defense platforms and systems are considered, together with methods of hardening to reduce system vulnerability in each of the effected areas: blast and shock, thermal radiation, transient effects on electronics. EMP, biological effects from contamination, atmospheric and ionospheric effects on communication, detection and surveillance systems. Prerequisites: PH4171 Classification: SECRET. |

The role of computation physics in modern weapons development and combat simulations is studied. The programming language is C within the UNIX, Apple, or Windows operating systems. Applications emphasize physical principles of weapons development, systems engineering, and the use of graphics. Subject matter includes random number distributions, projectile and fragment dispersion, missile defense, free electron laser simulation, laser beam propagation in a turbulent atmosphere, thermal blooming, diffraction and numerical integration methods. Optional topics include molecular dynamics in solids, liquids, and gases, wave propagation in various media, chaos, and quantum mechanical wave functions. Prerequisites: PO2911. |

The goal of this course is to expose the NPS student to the basic concepts in one of physics' most successful and fundamental formalisms - quantum electrodynamics (QED). The basic topics reviewed are quantum mechanics, electromagnetism, and special relativity. Then, these fundamental theories are extended and combined into QED. Throughout the course the relativistic free electron laser is used as an application of the basic theories encountered. Prerequisites: PH4656, PH2652 (PH4984 recommended). |

Quantum mechanics in the Dirac format. Angular momentum, spin, and spin resonance. Additional topics may include group theoretical applications to selection rules and crystal fields, variational principles, self-consistent fields in the many-electron atom, scattering theory, and polyatomic molecules. Prerequisites: PH3152 and PH4656. |

This course is a graduate level introduction to the current thought on the origin of space, time and matter. Topics covered are: The discovery of the cosmic evolution, Description of space in Newtonian and Einsteinian terminology, Kinematics and Dynamics of the Einstein cosmological models, the thermal history of the universe, the very early universe, the problems of a possible quantum origin of the universe and the possible future of the universe. Prerequisites: PH2652, PH3152, PH3360, PH3991. |

Study in one of the fields of advanced physics and related applied areas selected to meet special needs or interests of students. The course may be conducted as a seminar or supervised reading. The course carries a letter grade and may be repeated in different topics. Prerequisites: A 3000 level course appropriate to the subject to be studied, and consent of the Department Chairman. It may also be taken on a Pass/Fail basis if the student has requested so at the time of enrollment. |

Dissertation preparation for doctoral students. Available in the quarter following completion of coursework and then continuously each quarter until advancement to candidacy is approved by the Academic Council. |

Dissertation research for doctoral studies. Required in the quarter following advancement to candidacy and then continuously each quarter until dissertation is approved by the Academic Council. |